The United Monarchy of Israel, the ancient Jewish state was divided into two different Jewish states in 930 BCE, the Southern Kingdom of Judah and the Northern Kingdom of Israel. The population of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was in 745-715 BCE deported by Assyria to what is now Kurdistan. The Israelites apparently gained prominence in what became the Median Empire and Kohanim among the Israelites became the priestly caste of the Medes who themselves converted to Judaism and the Levites thus integrated into the priestly tribe of the Medes.
Median Judaism then historically spread throughout the Median and Persian empires and beyond and later severely contracted due to first Christian religious imperialism and later Muslim religious imperialism and associated respective religious persecution. Today Median Judaism survives with tens of millions of adherents, primarily in the Middle East but also beyond.
Two millennia ago was there once more a Jewish state in the land of Israel but which was crushed by the Romans. In 1948 the Jewish nation had the third chance and the Jewish state was successfully reestablished.
The challenge now facing the Jewish nation and the Zionist movement is the ingathering of Median Jewry to the state and land of Israel. The challenge is enormous in building homes, hospitals, schools and creating jobs for tens of millions of immigrants returning to the land of Israel after 27 centuries in exile.
There is however also the challenge of nation building in uniting a nation having lived millennia apart, this is unprecedented in history but was predicted already by the prophets of ancient Israel. Israel’s diverse society is already multiethnic, multicultural and multiracial in Rabbinically Jewish communities from around the world having been reunited as one nation speaking once more Hebrew as in ancient Israel.
There is a tremendous challenge for Orthodox Judaism in Israel in internalizing that it is but a minority in the Jewish nation and that Rabbinic Jews furthermore are a minority in the Jewish nation with the majority being Median Jews. There is also the much older pre-Israelite branch of Judaism, Mandaeism.
Those poskim (rabbinic decisors) who are initiated into the secrets of Esoteric Judaism are all Haredi Rabbis who have always been aware of Median Judaism and probably also Mandaeism. They never intended for the reunification of the Jewish nation to take place prior to the Messianic era. However, the Messianic era is technological; it is supplanting the animal industry with high tech food products, it is stopping adult ageing, it is genetically curing psychopathy (and thus ending most crime) as well as many other aspects of the emerging high tech revolution, most of which are still yet to come. One of the aspects of the man-made Messianic era is the visionary ingathering of the exiles to the reestablished Jewish state in the land of Israel. The state of Israel is furthermore one of the centers of the ongoing, yet still only emerging high tech revolution in so many fields of life.
Nevertheless, the challenge of uniting the long-divided, dispersed Jewish nation belongs to our generation. The Jewish nation is multicultural, multiethnic, multiracial and yes also multireligious, the latter is the hardest part. The Jewish nation includes many religious denominations, the majority of Jews belong to Median Judaism and so things will remain for decades in United Israel with tens of millions of citizens. However, Israel will nevertheless get a Haredi majority later this century (Israel will have close to 40 million Haredi citizens at the end of this century) and this is another challenge. How will Haredi Judaism coexist with the various denominations of Median Judaism in Israel? The challenges are immense.
Nevertheless is the calling of religious pluralism the future of liberal Israel.